The Edo Bakufu / The Edo Shogunate
The Edo Bakufu (the Edo Shogunate) was a samurais' government in Japan
opened by Ieyasu Tokugawa
) in 1603. And it was closed by Yoshinobu Tokugawa, the fifteenth shogun
of the Edo Shogunate, that he returned the political power to the Emperor.
Thus the Edo Bakufu had the political power of Japan from 1603 to 1867.
However, the period of the Shogunate is called 'Edo Period
', and the 265 years of the period was sometimes said 'peaceful period'.
Late Sengoku Period (the Warring States Period)
, Tokugawa Clan
was one of small lord who ruled Mikawa-no-kuni (eastern Aichi Prefecture).
In August 1598, Hideyoshi Toyotomi
who was the Kanpaku Dajo-daijin (the supreme minister and chancellor)
having the power to rule the samurai society, the five largest powerful
lords would manage the governmental administration together by Hideyoshi's
will. However, there was a conflict between the military faction as Kiyomasa Kato
, Masanori Fukushima, Yoshinaga Asano, Nagamasa Kuroda, Tadaoki Hosokawa,
etc., and administrative faction as Mitsunari Ishida, Nagamori Mashita,
etc. Ieyasu supported the members of the military faction to control them
to gain the power in the samurai society. Finally, Ieyasu won the battle
against Mitsunari and his faction at Sekigahara in Mino-no-kuni (Gifu Prefecture).
This is called the Battle of Sekigahara. After Sekigahara, Ieyasu gained
the power to manage the government, so he planned the postwar processing
and decided the postwar grants of honors. In 1603, he was appointed the
shogun, then he founded the Bakufu in Edo and he became the first Shogun,
then the Edo Period started.
The governmental administration of the Edo Bakufu was based on the relation of master and servant between the Shogun and the daimyo (the feudal lord). The administrative system in the Daimyo's territory was called Han, the lord could manage by himself in it, so the Bakufu ruled throughout Japan through the Daimyos. This is the foundation of shogunate system in Edo Bakufu.
The Successive Shoguns: A List Of Tokugawa Shoguns
1 Ieyasu Tokugawa 1603-05
2 Hidetada Tokugawa 1605-1623
3 Iemitus Tokugawa 1623-1651
4 Ietsuna Tokugawa 1651-1680
5 Tsunayoshi Tokugawa 1680-1709
6 Ienobu Tokugawa 1709-1712
7 Ietsugu Tokugawa 1713-1716
8 Yoshimune Tokugawa 1716-1745
9 Ieshige Tokugawa 1745-1760
10 Ieharu Tokugawa 1760-1786
11 Ienari Tokugawa 1787-1837
12 Ieyoshi Tokugawa 1837-1853
13 Iesada Tokugawa 1853-1858
14 Iemochi Tokugawa 1858-1866
15 Yoshinobu Tokugawa 1867-1868
In 1853, the United States Fleet commanded by Matthew PERRY came to Japan,
and he ordered to open Japan to the west. Then a conflict between groups
of samurais happened, one who would open Japan to the west, and another
one would not. When the Edo Bakufu opened the country in 1854, the Hans
who did not support to open found the decreasing power of the Bakufu. Some
of samurais revolted, and the Hans were divided into two groups, one supported
the Edo Bakufu, and another one did not. Finally, Yoshinobu Tokugawa returned
the political power to the Emperor, and he opened the Edo-jo Castle
. Then the Edo Bakufu ended, and the Meiji government started (the Meiji
The Edo Bakufu was the final samurai government. The samurai government
started by Yoritomo Minamoto in Kamakura
in Kanagawa Prefecture
in 1192 (some said in 1180, 1183, 1185 and so on), it was the Kamakura Bakufu
, then Takauji Ashikaga founded the Muromachi Bakufu in Kyoto in 1336.
The 265 years under control of the Edo Bakufu is called the Edo Period.