Hachiman Sinko / The Hachiman Beliefs
Hachiman Shinko started at Nara period
and spread among in the Middle Ages in Japan. Usa Hachimangu Shrine in
Buzen province (Oita prefecture) was the origin and Hachimanjin God, the
main deity of the shrine, have been the god of agriculture. It advanced
to Nara to found Tamukeyama Hachimangu Shrine when the Great Buddha was
built in Todaiji Temple. Hachiman was the first Shintoism to connect to
Buddhisim. In 781, the title of Hachiman Daibosatsu was given to Hachimanjin
God to protect Buddhism and the country and the branch shrines were built
in Buddhist temples as their guardian gods, and a statue of Hachiman attired
as a Buddhist monk was carved by Kaikei in Heian Period
. In 860, Iwashimizu Hachimangu Shrine was built in Kyoto and the Imperial
Court believed it to protect the Imperial Palace. Since the middle ages,
the Emperor Oujin
and his mother the Empress Jingu
have been dedicated as the main deities of the shrine, and Seiwa Genji Clan
especially believed it so it became the guardian god of samurai worriers,
then its branches have been built throughout Japan.
Now there are over 40,000 Hachiman Shrines in Japan. Usa Hachimangu Shrine,
the Hachiman Ogami God, Hime Ogami God, the Empress Jingu are dedicated
at the shrine. Iwashimizu Hachimangu Shrine and Tsurugaoka Hachimangu Shrine
in Kamakura are famous.
The Emperor Oujin (5th century) as Hachiman Ogami
The Emperor Oujin is the 15th emperor of Japan. His father is the 14th
, and his mother is the Empress Jingu
. Oujin is his Chinese posthumous name, his name is the prince Homudawake
During his reign, many people from China and Korea came and brought many new studies and technologies in Japan, Araki, Wani and Achi no Omi were famous, so the political power of the Imperial Court in Yamato had improved greatly. Many historians supporsed that he could be the King San in Sosho (the biography of Song Dynasty in Southern China from 420 to 479).
Moreover, the Emperor Oujin is dedicated at Hachmangu Shrines
throughout Japan as Hachiman Ogami God, Hachimanjin God or Hachiman Daibosatsu.
The Hachimanjin God is the god of samurai worriers. Seiwa Genji Clan
claimed they were the descendants of the Emperor Oujin, so they had deeply
believed in Hachimanjin.
The large old burial mound in Habikino City, Osaka could be his tomb, it is called Oujin Ryo Kofun or Homuda Yama Kofun. It is the secondary largest ancient tomb in Japan.
The Empress Jingu (late 3rd to 4th century?)
The Empress Jingu is a wife of the 14th Emperor Chuai
and the mother of the 15th Emperor Oujin
. Jingu is her Chinese posthumous name, her name is Okingagatarashi Hime.
According to Harima no Kuni Fudoki, her name is Otarashi Hime.
During the battle against Kumasos (a state) in Kyushu region, her husband died, then she planned to invade foreign countries even though she was going to have the Emperor Oujin in her body. After she won the battle, she gave to birth the Emperor at Kyushu, she helped the Emperor Oujin for 69 years to govern the country.
The Empress Jingu is also dedicated at Hachiman Shrines
with her son the Emperor Oujin throughout Japan.
Tamayoribime no Mikoto
According to Nihonshoki (the oldest chronicles of Japan) and Kojiki (the
records of ancient matters), Tamayoribime is second daughter of the god
of sea. She married with a son of her elder sister Ugayafukiaezu no Mikoto
and gave to birth the First Emperor Jinmu and his brothers.
And also according to Fudoki (chronicles of local Japan), she was a daughter of Kamo Taketsunomi no Mikoto and Ikakoyahime, and she married with Hono Ikazuchi no Kami taking form of the red-painted arrow to visit her and she gave to birth Kamo no Wakeikazuchi no Mikoto.
Anyway, the word 'Tamayoribime' means 'spirit', it might imply holy women in the shrines whom divine spirits entered into.
Chuai Tenno / the Emperor Chuai (3rd century?)
The Emperor Chuai is the 14th Emperor, he is the father of the 15th Emperor
, the husband of the Empress Jingu
and his father is Yamato Takeru no Mikoto.
Chuai is his Chinese posthumous name, his name is Tarashinakatsuhiko no Mikoto.
The Emperor Chuai was passed away at Kashihi no Miya in Chikuzen province
(Fukuoka prefecture) during his campaign against Kumaso in Kyushu region.
Takenouchi no Sukune (2rd to 4th century?)
Takenouchi no Sukune is the great politician in legends of the Imperial
Court in Yamato. And he is the descendant (grandson or great-grandson)
of the 8th Emperor Kogen. According to Nihonshoki (the oldest chronicles
of Japan) and Kojiki (the records of ancient matters), he served the Emperor
Keiko, Seimu, Chuai
and Nintoku for 244 years. He went to the eastern Japan to inspection,
and he was appointed as the first ranked minister under the reign of Seimu,
and he also helped the Empress Jingu
to win the war. He is the longest living man in the history of Japan.
Takenouchi no Sukune is the ancestor of Soga, Katsuragi, Kose, Heguri, Ki and other 23 clans.