本文へスキップ

Nakayama is in between Narita And Haneda International Airport

中山・下総・散歩道

Hachiman Shinko / The Hachiman Beliefs

Hachiman Sinko / The Hachiman Beliefs

Hachiman Shinko started at Nara period and spread among in the Middle Ages in Japan. Usa Hachimangu Shrine in Buzen province (Oita prefecture) was the origin and Hachimanjin God, the main deity of the shrine, have been the god of agriculture. It advanced to Nara to found Tamukeyama Hachimangu Shrine when the Great Buddha was built in Todaiji Temple. Hachiman was the first Shintoism to connect to Buddhisim. In 781, the title of Hachiman Daibosatsu was given to Hachimanjin God to protect Buddhism and the country and the branch shrines were built in Buddhist temples as their guardian gods, and a statue of Hachiman attired as a Buddhist monk was carved by Kaikei in Heian Period. In 860, Iwashimizu Hachimangu Shrine was built in Kyoto and the Imperial Court believed it to protect the Imperial Palace. Since the middle ages, the Emperor Oujin and his mother the Empress Jingu have been dedicated as the main deities of the shrine, and Seiwa Genji Clan especially believed it so it became the guardian god of samurai worriers, then its branches have been built throughout Japan.
Now there are over 40,000 Hachiman Shrines in Japan. Usa Hachimangu Shrine, the Hachiman Ogami God, Hime Ogami God, the Empress Jingu are dedicated at the shrine. Iwashimizu Hachimangu Shrine and Tsurugaoka Hachimangu Shrine in Kamakura are famous.


参考
日本史辞典 新制版
大辞林

Oujin Tenno (the Emperor Oujin) / Hachiman Ogami

The Emperor Oujin (5th century) as Hachiman Ogami

The Emperor Oujin is the 15th emperor of Japan. His father is the 14th Emperor Chuai, and his mother is the Empress Jingu. Oujin is his Chinese posthumous name, his name is the prince Homudawake no Mikoto.
During his reign, many people from China and Korea came and brought many new studies and technologies in Japan, Araki, Wani and Achi no Omi were famous, so the political power of the Imperial Court in Yamato had improved greatly. Many historians supporsed that he could be the King San in Sosho (the biography of Song Dynasty in Southern China from 420 to 479).
Moreover, the Emperor Oujin is dedicated at Hachmangu Shrines throughout Japan as Hachiman Ogami God, Hachimanjin God or Hachiman Daibosatsu. The Hachimanjin God is the god of samurai worriers. Seiwa Genji Clan claimed they were the descendants of the Emperor Oujin, so they had deeply believed in Hachimanjin.
The large old burial mound in Habikino City, Osaka could be his tomb, it is called Oujin Ryo Kofun or Homuda Yama Kofun. It is the secondary largest ancient tomb in Japan.


参考
日本史辞典 新制版
大辞林

Jingu Kogo / the Empress Jingu

The Empress Jingu (late 3rd to 4th century?)

The Empress Jingu is a wife of the 14th Emperor Chuai and the mother of the 15th Emperor Oujin. Jingu is her Chinese posthumous name, her name is Okingagatarashi Hime. According to Harima no Kuni Fudoki, her name is Otarashi Hime.
During the battle against Kumasos (a state) in Kyushu region, her husband died, then she planned to invade foreign countries even though she was going to have the Emperor Oujin in her body. After she won the battle, she gave to birth the Emperor at Kyushu, she helped the Emperor Oujin for 69 years to govern the country.
The Empress Jingu is also dedicated at Hachiman Shrines with her son the Emperor Oujin throughout Japan.


参考
日本史辞典 新制版
大辞林
ブリタニカ国際大百科事典
デジタル大辞泉

Tamayoribime no Mikoto

Tamayoribime no Mikoto

According to Nihonshoki (the oldest chronicles of Japan) and Kojiki (the records of ancient matters), Tamayoribime is second daughter of the god of sea. She married with a son of her elder sister Ugayafukiaezu no Mikoto and gave to birth the First Emperor Jinmu and his brothers.
And also according to Fudoki (chronicles of local Japan), she was a daughter of Kamo Taketsunomi no Mikoto and Ikakoyahime, and she married with Hono Ikazuchi no Kami taking form of the red-painted arrow to visit her and she gave to birth Kamo no Wakeikazuchi no Mikoto.
Anyway, the word 'Tamayoribime' means 'spirit', it might imply holy women in the shrines whom divine spirits entered into.


大辞林

Chuai Tenno / the Emperor Chuai

Chuai Tenno / the Emperor Chuai (3rd century?)

The Emperor Chuai is the 14th Emperor, he is the father of the 15th Emperor Oujin, the husband of the Empress Jingu and his father is Yamato Takeru no Mikoto.
Chuai is his Chinese posthumous name, his name is Tarashinakatsuhiko no Mikoto.
The Emperor Chuai was passed away at Kashihi no Miya in Chikuzen province (Fukuoka prefecture) during his campaign against Kumaso in Kyushu region.


参考
大辞林

Takenouchi no Sukune

Takenouchi no Sukune (2rd to 4th century?)

Takenouchi no Sukune is the great politician in legends of the Imperial Court in Yamato. And he is the descendant (grandson or great-grandson) of the 8th Emperor Kogen. According to Nihonshoki (the oldest chronicles of Japan) and Kojiki (the records of ancient matters), he served the Emperor Keiko, Seimu, Chuai, Oujin and Nintoku for 244 years. He went to the eastern Japan to inspection, and he was appointed as the first ranked minister under the reign of Seimu, and he also helped the Empress Jingu to win the war. He is the longest living man in the history of Japan.
Takenouchi no Sukune is the ancestor of Soga, Katsuragi, Kose, Heguri, Ki and other 23 clans.


参考
日本史辞典 新制版
大辞林
日本世界人名事典
ブリタニカ国際大百科事典
デジタル大辞泉
デジタル版日本人名大辞典